Consistent with our earlier observation (Fig
Consistent with our earlier observation (Fig. glycerol growth defect in the nonpermissive temp (Fig. 1A, and at the restrictive temp . D and E. mdivi-1 causes the formation of mitochondrial net-like constructions (E, right panel, mdivi-1; left panel, DMSO) in candida cells inside a dose-dependent manner (D, representative experiment demonstrated, n 100). In E, remaining panel is the DMSO control, right panel is definitely mdivi-1. F. mdivi-1 has no effect on the F-actin cytoskeleton. Mitochondria are in reddish, and Dibutyl sebacate Phalloidin is in green. Left panel: DMSO control cells. Center panel: mdivi-1-treated cells. Right panel: Latrunculin-A and mdivi-1-treated cells. N=mitochondrial nets. Level pub = 2. Therefore, to identify mitochondrial division inhibitors, we performed a straightforward growth-based display to identify small molecules that suppress the glycerol growth defect of cells. To enhance the steady state intracellular concentration of the medicines in candida cells, null mutations in the and genes, which encode for transcriptional regulatory proteins that positively control the manifestation of multi-drug resistance ABC transporters, were produced in the strains used in the display and in the characterization of the small molecules (Rogers et al., 2001). These additional mutations experienced no effect on mitochondrial division and fusion in cells (not shown). Initially, small molecules were screened at solitary concentrations between 10-100 M in main and secondary assays due to the limited amount of the compounds obtained. When tested only, TFIIH DMSO, the solvent used to solubilize the small molecules, experienced no significant effects in any of the assays explained. We screened approximately 23,000 compounds, representative of several commercially available libraries, using the primary growth assay-based display (Table 1, 1 display). All compounds identified were further tested in a secondary analysis for his or her effects on stable state mitochondrial morphology in candida (Table 1, 2 display). The stable state structure of mitochondria in candida and mammalian cells is an indicator of the relative rates of mitochondrial division and fusion in cells (Bleazard et al., 1999; Hermann et al., 1998; Nunnari et al., 1997; Sesaki and Jensen, 1999). Specifically, the presence of fragmented mitochondrial constructions shows that mitochondrial fusion is definitely selectively attenuated. In contrast, the presence of net-like mitochondrial constructions shows that mitochondrial division is definitely selectively attenuated. We assayed for these morphological phenotypes using a mitochondrially targeted GFP that is efficiently localized to both crazy type and respiratory deficient mitochondria. With this secondary assay, small molecules were judged to be positive if they produced a mutant phenotype in greater than 20% of the cell human population. As summarized in Table 1, the overall frequency of division inhibitor hits (total of 3) recognized using our main and secondary assays was extremely low, indicating our screening strategy was selective. Table 1 Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor Dibutyl sebacate Display cells (Fig. 1C). Significantly, mdivi-1 also suppressed the glycerol growth defects observed in additional mutants defective in the mitochondrial fusion pathway, Dibutyl sebacate such as cells, which contain a mutated copy of the gene encoding the mitochondrial inner membrane fusion dynamin, Mgm1 (cells, further suggesting that it blocks division by acting in the Dnm1-dependent division pathway (not shown). Taken collectively, our results show that mdivi-1 is definitely a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial division. To address the Dibutyl sebacate specificity of mdivi-1 effects on mitochondrial division, we examined its effect on two cellular constructions that, when perturbed, can cause indirect changes in mitochondrial morphology: the actin cytoskeleton and the peripheral ER network. These constructions are routinely examined in candida mitochondrial morphology mutants like a test for the specificity of the mitochondrial phenotype (McConnell et al., 1990). Treatment of cells with 100 M mdivi-1 caused the formation of mitochondrial net-like constructions, but did not result in significant changes in either the actin cytoskeleton (Fig. 1F, 100%, n=100, remaining panel) or the peripheral ER network (not demonstrated, 100%, n=50), as compared to control DMSO-treated cells. In contrast, addition.